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Agroindustry subsystem

(source: Bungaran Saragih ,Former Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia ;
Professor of the Department of Social Economy, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB)

According Bungaran Saragih, there are 4 sub-systems in the world of Agroindustry. 4 sub-systems are:

(1) Sub-system of agri-upstream (up-stream Agroindustry),
ie industries that produce capital goods for agriculture, such as industry Germination / seedlings, plants, animals, fish, agrochemical industry (fertilizer, pesticides, medicines, vaccines ternak. / fish), industrial equipment and agricultural machinery (agro-automotive );
(2) Sub-primary agricultural systems (on-farm Agroindustry),
ie cultivation activities that produce primary agricultural commodities (crops farming, horticultural farming, farming medicinal plants (bio), plantation, animal husbandry, fisheries, and forestry business);
(3) Sub-system downstream Agroindustry (down-stream Agroindustry),
the industries that process agricultural primary commodities into processed products such as industrial makanan. / beverage, food industries, industrial goods of natural fibers, the pharmaceutical industry, bio-energy industry etc. and
(4) Sub-system provider of Agroindustry (services for Agroindustry) such as credit,
transportation and warehousing, R & D, human resource education, and economic policy

With the scope of the Agroindustry system development, the construction industry, agriculture and services reinforce each other and converging at the production of agri products the market needs.

In the Agroindustry system perpetrator is the Agroindustry enterprises (firm) of farming families, business groups, small business, medium business, business cooperatives and corporations, both in the sub-systems downstream Agroindustry, sub-systems on farm, Agroindustry sub-system upstream and the sub-systems for Agroindustry service providers. Therefore, the government is going to grow and develop and strengthen Agroindustry enterprises through a variety of policy instruments owned. The government is no longer the executor, but act as a facilitator, regulator and promoter of development and Agroindustry systems.
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Essential Oils

One of agroindustrial product that common in use are Essential Oils. An essential oil is a liquid that is generally distilled (most frequently by steam or water) from the leaves, stems, flowers, bark, roots, or other elements of a plant. Essential oils, contrary to the use of the word "oil" are not really oily-feeling at all. Most essential oils are clear, but some oils such as patchouli, orange and lemongrass are amber or yellow in color.
Essential oils contain the true essence of the plant it was derived from. Essential oils are highly concentrated and a little goes a long way.
Essential oils are not the same as perfume or fragrance oils. Where essential oils are derived from the true plants, perfume oils are artificially created fragrances or contain artificial substances and do not offer the therapeutic benefits that essential oils offer.
The chemical composition and aroma of essential oils can provide valuable psychological and physical therapeutic benefits. These benefits are usually achieved through methods including inhalation and application of the diluted oil to the skin. There are over 100 kind and profiles of essential oils. 
Essential oils are often used by diluting them with a carrier oil (sweet almond oil, apricot kernel oil, grapeseed oil) and then applying this blend to the skin for absorption.Careful inhalation of the oils can also provide therapeutic benefit as the oil molecules enter the lungs and are absorbed into the bloodstream.
Essential Oils are usually sold for individual use in very small bottles. See the Storing Your Oils page for information on how to store your oils and to view pictures of essential oil bottles.
Essential oils can very greatly in quality and price. Various factors that can affect the quality and price of the oil include the rarity of the plant, country and conditions that the plant was grown, quality standards of the distiller, and how much oil is produced by the plant.
Essential oils can often be purchased as blends of several essential oils. The advantage if it is a blend of pure essential oils is that you can save from having to buy every essential oil individually. The disadvantage is that you have no control over the blend by not mixing it yourself nor can you reliably mix the blend with other oils.
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Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads"). Therefore, they are soluble in both organic solvents and water.
Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-gas interface. They also reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water by adsorbing at the liquid-liquid interface. Many surfactants can also assemble in the bulk solution into aggregates. Examples of such aggregates are vesicles and micelles. The concentration at which surfactants begin to form micelles is known as the critical micelle concentration or CMC. When micelles form in water, their tails form a core that can encapsulate an oil droplet, and their (ionic/polar) heads form an outer shell that maintains favorable contact with water. When surfactants assemble in oil, the aggregate is referred to as a reverse micelle. In a reverse micelle, the heads are in the core and the tails maintain favorable contact with oil. Surfactants are also often classified into four primary groups; anionic, cationic, non-ionic, and zwitterionic (dual charge).

Some surfactants are known to be toxic to animals, ecosystems and humans, and can increase the diffusion of other environmental contaminants. Despite this, they are routinely deposited in numerous ways on land and into water systems, whether as part of an intended process or as industrial and household waste. Some surfactants have proposed or voluntary restrictions on their use. For example, PFOS is a persistent organic pollutant as judged by the Stockholm Convention. 
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These days plastics are predominantly made from crude oil. In this context, renewable resources are becoming a more viable and promising alternative for the plastics industry. When plastics made from petroleum are burned, they release the carbon dioxide contained in the petroleum into the atmosphere, leading to global warming. The use of bioplastics offers significant advantages not only in an ecological sense but also in an economical sense.

Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from plant sources such as sweet potatoes, sugarcane, hemp oil, soy bean oil and corn starch. Bioplastics are environmentally friendly because, compared with traditional plastics, their production results in the emission of less carbon dioxide, which is thought to cause global warming. They are also biodegradable, meaning that the material returns to its natural state when buried in the ground. If something made of bioplastic is buried in the ground, microorganisms will break it down into carbon dioxide and water. Bags made of bioplastic can be thrown away and buried with other biodegradable garbage, and there are a growing number of other uses for the materials as well, including artificial fibers, medical products, and construction materials.

To make a bioplastics we can use enzymes as a tools. Enzymes are used to break starch in the plants down into glucose, which is fermented and made into lactic acid. This lactic acid is polymerized and converted into a plastic called polylactic acid, which can be used in the manufacture of products after being heated and shaped. 

Application of Bioplastics
  1. Packaging
  2. The use of bioplastics for shopping bags is already very common. After their initial use they can be reused as bags for organic waste and then be composted. Trays and containers for fruit, vegetables, eggs and meat, bottles for soft drinks and dairy products and blister foils for fruit and vegetables are also already widely manufactured from bioplastics. 
  3. Sanitary Products
  4. Due to their specific characteristics, bioplastics are used as a basis for the production of sanitary products. These materials are breathable and allow water vapor to permeate, but at the same time they are waterproof. Foils made of soft bioplastic are already used as diaper foil, bed underlay, for incontinence products, ladies sanitary products and as disposable gloves.  
  5. Medical Products
  6. In comparison to packaging products, the medical sector sets out completely different requirements with regards to products made of renewable and reabsorbing plastics. 
    The highest possible qualitative standards have to be met and guaranteed, resulting in an extremely high costs, which sometimes exceed 1.000 Euro per kilo. 
    The potential applications of biodegradable or reabsorbing bioplastics are manifold.
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Algae the solution of Energy

According to research results, from each hectare Jatropha curcas plantation, in a year, can only produce 1500 liters of oil. This is better than radish seeds that produce 1000 liters and cabbage seeds (mustard) 1300 liters. However, the distance is still less superior than coconut (2200 liters), oil (Crude Palm Oil CPO) (5800 liters), and even more productivity from algae that reach 40,000 to 120,000 liters per hectare per year. Productivity of algae truly remarkable even than CPO. In addition to the great productivity, biofuel from algae is one solution in fulfilling the energy needs so as not to conflict with the fulfillment of their food needs.
READ MORE - Algae the solution of Energy


Crude Palm Oil (CPO)

Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. Palm oil is naturally reddish because it contains a high amount of beta-carotene (though boiling palm oil destroys the beta-carotene, rendering the oil colourless). Palm oil is one of the few vegetable oils relatively high in saturated fats (like palm kernel oil and coconut oil). It is thus semi-solid at typical temperate climate room temperatures, though it will more often appear as liquid in warmer countries.

Palm oil contains several saturated and unsaturated fats in the forms of glyceryl laurate (0.1%, saturated), myristate (0.1%, saturated), palmitate (44%, saturated), stearate (5%, saturated), oleate (39%, monounsaturated), linoleate (10%, polyunsaturated), and linolenate (0.3%, polyunsaturated). Like every vegetable oil, palm oil is designated as cholesterol-free, although saturated fat intake increases both LDL and HDL cholesterol.

Palm oil is a very common cooking ingredient in southeast Asia and the tropical belt of Africa. Its increasing use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is buoyed by its cheaper pricing and the high oxidative stability of the refined product. Palm oil contains more saturated fats than some other vegetable oils. The palm fruit yields two distinct oils - palm oil and palm kernel oil.

In the 1960s, research and development (R&D) in oil palm breeding began to expand after Malaysia's Department of Agriculture established an exchange program with West African economies and four private plantations formed the Oil Palm Genetics Laboratory. The government also established Kolej Serdang, which became the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) in the 1970s to train agricultural and agro-industrial engineers and agro-business graduates to conduct research in the field.

In 1979, following strong lobbying from oil palm planters and support from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and UPM, the government set up the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (Porim). B.C. Sekhar was instrumental in Porim's recruitment and training of scientists to undertake R&D in oil palm tree breeding, palm oil nutrition and potential oleochemical use. Sekhar, as founder and chairman, strategised Porim to be a public-and-private-coordinated institution. As a result, Porim (renamed Malaysian Palm Oil Board in 2000) became Malaysia's top research entity with the highest technology commercialisation rate of 20% compared to 5% among local universities. While MPOB has gained international prominence, its relevance is dependent on it churning out breakthrough findings in the world's fast-changing oil crop genetics, dietary fat nutrition and process engineering landscape.

Palm oil, like other vegetable oils, can be used to create biodiesel for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel has been promoted as a renewable energy source to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, biodiesel is seen as a way to decrease the impact of the greenhouse effect and as a way of diversifying energy supplies to assist national energy security plans.

Palm is also used to make biodiesel, as either a simply-processed palm oil mixed with petrodiesel, or processed through transesterification to create a palm oil methyl ester blend, which meets the international EN 14214 specification, with glycerin as a byproduct. The actual process used varies between countries, and the requirements of different export markets. Next-generation biofuel production processes are also being tested in relatively small trial quantities.
READ MORE - Crude Palm Oil (CPO)


Biogas in Indonesia

Last few years of energy is a crucial issue in the world. Increased energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves and the issue of emissions from fossil fuels put pressure on every country to be producing and using renewable energy. In addition, the increase in world oil prices to reach U $ 100 per barrel is also a serious reason that hit many countries in the world, especially Indonesia.

World oil price hikes will give a great impact for the development of the Indonesian nation. Fuel consumption reaching 1.3 million barrels of production is not balanced with a value of about 1 million barrels, so there is a deficit that must be met through imports. According to the Energy and Mineral Resources data (2006) Indonesia's oil reserves left only about 9 billion barrels. If continued consumed without finding new oil reserves, estimated oil reserves will be exhausted within two decades.

To reduce dependence on fossil fuels the government has issued a presidential republic of Indonesia regulation number 5 of 2006 on national energy policy to develop alternative energy sources to replace fossil fuels. The policy emphasis on resources as a renewable alternative fuel substitute for oil.

One of the alternative energy sources is biogas. This gas comes from a variety of organic wastes such as biomass waste, human waste, animal waste into energy can be utilized through Anaerobic Digestion process. It is a great opportunity to generate alternative energy so akanmengurangi impact of fossil fuel use.

Biogas is a process of bio gas production from organic materials with the help of bacteria. The process of degradation of organic materials without involving oxygen is called anaerobic Digestion gases produced largely (over 50%) of methane. organic material accumulated in the digester (reactor) going diuraiakan into two stages with the help of two types of bacteria. The first phase will orgranik material degraded to acid weak acid with the aid of acid-forming bacteria. These bacteria will describe the level of waste and asidifikasi hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of complex compounds decomposition or long chain compounds such as fats, proteins, carbohydrates into simple compounds. While the formation of acid asifdifikasi of simple compounds.

After the organic material into acid acid, then the second stage of Anaerobic Digestion is the process of formation of methane gas with the aid of methane-forming bacteria such as methanococus, methanosarcina, methano bacterium.

Development of Anaerobic Digestion process has been successful in many applications. This process has the ability to process the garbage / waste overflow exists and is not useful to more valuable products. Anaerobic Digestion application has been successful in processing industrial waste, agricultural waste and livestock waste municipal solid waste (MSW).

History of Anaerobic Digestion discovery process to produce biogas spread in continental Europe. The discovery of gas Volta scientists issued in the swamps occurred in 1770, several decades later, Avogadro identified about methane gas. After the year 1875 confirmed that biogas is a product of Anaerobic Digestion process. 1884 Pasteour doing research on animal waste biogas use. Era of research form the basis for Pasteour biogas research to date.

Biogas is mostly contain gas methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and some contain a small amount of hydrogen sulfide include (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen and (H2), nitrogen contents are very small.

The energy contained in biogas depends on the concentration of methane (CH4). The higher the methane content, the greater the energy content (calorific value) of biogas, and conversely the smaller the smaller the content of methane calorific value. Quality of biogas can be improved by treating some parameters as follows: Mute hydrogen sulfur, water content and carbon dioxide (CO2). Hydrogen and sulfur containing toxic substances that cause corrosion, if the biogas containing these compounds, it will cause a dangerous gas concentrations that are allowed a maximum of 5 ppm. If the gas burned sulfur hydrogen would be more dangerous because it will form a new compound together oxygen, the sulfur dioxide / sulfur trioxide (SO2 / SO3). is more toxic compounds. At the same time will form a sulfur acid (H2SO3) a compound which is more corrosive. The second parameter is to eliminate carbon dioxide that has the purpose to improve the quality, so the gas can be used to fuel vehicles. The water content in the biogas will decrease the ignition point can menimbukan biogas and corrosive. The following is a brief scheme of biogas production from cow dung or human waste:

Conversion of waste through anaerobic processes to produce biogas Digestion has several advantages, namely:

  • Biogas is energy without the use of materials that still has benefits including biomass so that biogas does not destroy the balance of carbon dioxide caused by deforestation (deforestation) and the destruction of the land. 
  • Biogas energy can serve as an energy substitute for fossil fuels that will reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and other emissions. 
  • Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that their presence will increase the temperature duatmosfer, by using biogas as a fuel it will reduce methane gas in the air. 
  • Animal waste and human waste is material that is not bermanfaaat, even menngakibatkan a very dangerous poison. Anaerobic Digestion application will minimize these effects and increase the value of the benefits of waste. 
  • In addition to energy benefits obtained from Anaerobic Digestion process to produce bio gas, side products such as sludge. Meterial is obtained from the rest of Anaerobic Digestion is the process of solid and liquid form. Each can be used as fertilizer in the form of liquid fertilizer and solid fertilizer. 
Fuel oil prices increased and the diminishing availability and problems of greenhouse gas emissions is a problem faced by the global community. Search efforts will fuel more environmentally friendly and a renewable energy solution of the problem. For that Indonesia is a vast potential for such a large area, is expected to immediately apply biogas fuels.
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The availability of ethanol and biodiesel at the fuel pump is becoming more prevalent. Rising fuel prices, environmental concerns, pressures for oil independence, and Federal energy policy are creating a strong market for renewable energy.
Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. Biofuel derived from plant materials is among the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies. In the United States, corn-based ethanol is currently the largest source of biofuel as a gasoline substitute or additive. Growing biofuel demand has implications for the U.S. agriculture sector and rural communities.
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Agroindusty Marketing

Although forest, agricultural land and we continue to exploit the sea was still productive. We proudly claim as an agricultural country. We are also proud often "drift" when foreigners praise the fertility of our country. In fact this is so, although the level of fertility and productivity decline.
Although our country fertile, but we still have to import soybeans for tempe manufacture, production of tomatoes for sauce, wheat for noodles, garlic for a variety of herbs and other agricultural products to traditional herbal medicine industry. We do need to have tdak ideals of self-sufficiency for all agricultural products. Era was not the case anymore. Consumers are shifting needs and desires. Consumers appreciate quality assurance, comfort and uniqueness of products.
Agro-industry is an important solution to bridge the consumer desires and characteristics of agricultural products are varied and could not be saved. Range of agro-industries have a very broad sense. From the very soft form of post-harvest processing such as the creation of only salted fish preservation technology should have reached a high value added agricultural products in which the extracts and combined with other products in sepert perfume industry.
Wheat will be appreciated more expensive when it's milled into flour, and will be even higher keitika processed into bread. The price of bread will also be more expensive if given additional service delivery to consumer homes by using a car or a type of bread served at the coffee shop five-star hotel.
One time in one of the shopping center I was impressed with the traders who were using menjula corn wheelbarrow. Boiled sweet corn that was removed from the cob plus sweetened condensed milk and vegetable oil and then beaten, whipped and served in a fancy plastic cups, hargannya Rp. 6000, - while the price of corn on the cob at the summit area only Rp. 1000, -.Similarly, fishermen who catch fish price per kilonya only a few thousand dollars will be multiplied three or four times when they have been cleaned up and sold in supermarkets, especially if it could be processed and canned sardines.
Similarly, logs from the forests of Borneo that are already sorted and sorted to guarantee the quality will be appreciated more expensive when it arrived in surabaya especially when it is exported to Japan. And will be more appreciated when it diijadikan furniture.
Various examples above illustrate the extent of the range will be very understanding agro-industries. Products "original" variety of agro-industries in the above examples are sardines and plywood. What about flour or bread that is served hotel? I completed my undergraduate education in the agroindustrial majors sapai tecnology and today I still enjoy the endless debate about the definition of agro-industry among agricultural pafkar visit not subside. In my understanding, agro-industry is mebrei industrial added value of agricultural products in a broad sense, including seafood, hasilk forests, livestock and fisheries.

Value added in typical agricultural products in various forms provided meberi persepis higher value in the minds of consumers. The simplest is to improve physical appearance through sorting and quality assurance. Consumers will perceive a low in fish catch of fishermen who still what they are; eg mixed among small fish, big fish and other seafood. The next added value comes through the storage and transportation. Fish are sold by auction at Muara Karang fish market will be valued more expensive when it is presented in a clean condition and placed in cooler Paserba Carrefour.
Value-added agricultural products can be improved through processing industry. Only in the context of the industry today do not have to push the meaning of the same goods produced in bulk. When consumers are increasingly demanding, the industry must be designed and customization demands of consumers adjust. Industry today must be able to provide a variety of products according to demand even a small group of individual consumers.
Basically the added value is not measured by what has been done including all the costs that must be measured from dikeluarakan but the perception of value in the minds of consumers.Because the value added dikur with consumer perception, the role of marketing to include the brand becomes important. The same bread can be appreciated more expensive brands that are sold with Holland Bakery, Delicius, or Sari Roti. Kopi Kapal Api, Kibif meat, cooking oil or samapai Bimoli sambal ABC valued more highly by consumers is not just for high-quality manufacturing processes, but because of hard work to build brand and communicate it to consumers.
Consumers are believed to perception. So if we can give a higher perception of the value creation and equipped with the right marketing applications will be emberi agroindustrial larger donations. During this agricultural commodities are often beaten Gonjang ganjing price drop because the supply abundant. Agro-industries could be a means of escape from the situation, commodity-like traps.
Awards should be given not because of the abundant production levels as a result of such fertile soil Koes Plus said but because the success of adding value higher. Marketing of agro-industries are yet to be more intensified again.

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