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Nanotechnology and Agriculture

The realization that there are small things in the world that are not visible to the naked eye extends back into human history. Today's developments are addressing the size range below these dimensions. Because a typical structure size is in the nanometer range, the methods and techniques are defined as nanotechnology.  The prefix "nano," derived from the Greek "nano" signifying "dwarf," is becoming increasingly common in scientific literature. "Nano" is now a popular label for much of modern science, and many "nano-" words have recently appeared in dictionaries, including: nanometer, nanoscale, nanoscience, nanotechnology, nanostructure, nanotube, nanowire, and nanorobot. Although the idea of nanotechnology: producing nanoscale objects and carrying out nanoscale manipulations, has been around for quite some time, the birth of the concept is usually linked to a speech by Rachard Feyman at the December 1959 meeting of the American Physical Society where he asked, "What would happen if we could arrange the atoms one by one the way we want them?"

Application Nanotechnology in Agriculture
In the agricultural sector, nanotech research and development is likely to facilitate and frame the next stage of development of genetically modified crops, animal production inputs, chemical pesticides and precision farming techniques. While nano-chemical pesticides are already in use, other applications are still in their early stages, and it may be many years before they are commercialized. These applications are largely intended to address some of the limitations and challenges facing large-scale, chemical and capital intensive farming systems. This includes the fine-tuning and more precise micro-management of soils; the more efficient and targeted use of inputs; new toxin formulations for pest control; new crop and animal traits; and the diversification and differentiation of farming practices and products within the context of large-scale and highly uniform systems of production.
                      
      Table 1. Nano agrochemicals under development
Type of product
Product name & manufacturer
Nano content
Purpose
Super" combined
fertilizer and
pesticide
Pakistan-US Science
and Technology Cooperative Program
Nano-clay capsule contains growth stimulants and biocontrol agents
Because it can be designed for slow release of active ingredients, treatment requires only one application over the life of the crop
Herbicide

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (India) and Technologico de Monterry (Mexico)
Nano-formulated

Designed to attack the seed
coating of weeds, destroy soil seed banks and prevent weed germination
Pesticides, including
herbicides
Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Nano-encapsulated active ingredients
Very small size of nanocapsules increases their potency and may enable targeted release of active ingredients

Source: http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/?q=content/nanotechnology-agriculture (Rajeew Kumar, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-Uttrakhand)

2 komentar:

NANO Magazine said...

Nanotechnology In Food & Drink

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neetu said...

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